891  Formosus became pope (b. ca. 816). After his death in 896 he was condemned as unworthy of the pontificate. All his measures and acts were annulled, and the orders conferred by him were declared invalid.

1510 Rowland Taylor, English clergyman and Protestant martyr, was born (d. 9 February 1555).

1520 Martin Luther’s Babylonian Captivity of the Church was published.

1531 War broke out between Catholic and Protestant cantons in Switzerland after Protestant cantons inaugurated a blockade of the Romanist cantons by resolution at Aargau in May.

1552 Matteo Ricci, the first Roman Catholic missionary to China, was born in Macareta, Italy (d. 11 May 1610).

1651 Heinrich Albert (Alberti), hymnist and composer, died at Koenigsberg, Prussia (b. 28 June 1604).

1683 A group of German settlers arrived in Philadelphia. The thirteen linen weavers and their families were Mennonite refugees from Krefeld, Germany. They founded Germantown, the first German settlement in America, near Philadelphia. Their pastor, Francis Daniel Pastorius, was considered by many as the most learned man in America at the time.

1816 William Bradbury, American Baptist sacred music composer, was born in York, Maine (d. 7 January 1868).

1818 Silas J. Vail, New England businessman and composer, was born in Brooklyn, New York (d. 20 May 1883, Brooklyn, New York).

1820 Jenny Lind, the “Swedish Nightingale,” was born (d. 2 November 1887).

1831 Wilhelm Achenbach, professor (Konrektor) at Concordia College (Fort Wayne, Indiana), was born in Darmstadt, Hessen, Germany (d. 24 February 1899).

1864 Richard Daniel Biedermann, president of Concordia Theological Seminary (Springfield, Illinois), was born in New Wells, Missouri (d. 8 March 1921).

1866 Joseph Stump, professor and president of the Chicago Lutheran Theological Seminary, was born in Marietta, Pennsylvania (d. 24 May 1935).

1871 J. Adam Rimbach, hymn translator, was born in Elyria, Ohio (d. 14 December 1941, Portland, Oregon). He graduated from Concordia Seminary (Saint Louis) in 1893 and first taught in an academy (progymnasium) opened by Lutheran congregations in Cleveland, Ohio, to gain more students for the ministry and teaching professions. He later served as pastor of congregations at Avilla, Indiana; Zanesville, Ohio; Ashland, Kentucky; and Portland, Oregon, the latter from 1906 until his death. He was awarded an honorary doctor of divinity degree by Concordia Seminary in 1941. He contributed numerous articles and sermons to the periodicals of the Missouri Synod. [The Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal, comp. W. G. Polack (Saint Louis: CPH, 1942): 56667]

1874 John E. Bode (b. 23 February 1816), Anglican clergyman and hymnist, died.

189 Alfred, Lord Tennyson (b. 6 August 1809), English Victorian poet, died.

1894 Matthew Bridges, English clergyman and hymnist, died in Quebec, Canada (b. 14 July 1800).

1925 Israel Abrahams, one of the most distinguished Jewish scholars of his time, died in Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England (b. 26 November 1858).

1945 George C. Stebbins (b. 26 February 1846), American Baptist music evangelist, died.

1979 Pope John Paul II (19202005) met with President Jimmy Carter at the White House.

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