1179 Hildegard of Bingen, a German abbess, mystic, author and preacher who received visions of God from the age of five, died (b. 1098).
1394 King Charles VI of France (1368–1422) ordered all Jews expelled from France.
1575 Heinrich Bullinger (b. 18 July 1504), Swiss reformer, died.
1611 Johannes Olearius, preacher and hymnist, was born at Halle (d. 24 April 1684).
1656 The colonial commissioners recommended severe laws against the Quakers, which were then enacted by Massachusetts.
1683 John Campanius, Lutheran missionary to American Indians, died (b. 15 August 1601, Stockholm).
1686 “Who Knows When Death May Overtake Me” was written by Ämilie Julienne (1637–1706), Countess of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt.
1717 The first Presbyterian synod in America met in Philadelphia.
1776 247 Spanish colonists consecrated their California mission of San Francisco.
1789 Josiah Conder, hymnist, was born in Aldersgate, London, England (d. 27 December 1855, Hampstead, Middlesex, England).
1828 Andrew Gordon, Presbyterian missionary to India (West Pakistan), was born in Putnam, New York (d. 13 August 1887).
1953 Frank Carl Streufert, secretary of LCMS missions from 1932 to 1953, died (b. 30 April 1874, Chicago).
1988 Bernard A. Confer, former executive director of Lutheran World Relief (LWR), died in Teaneck, New Jersey.
2002 Werner K. Wadewitz died (b. 1912). A 1937 graduate of Concordia Seminary (Saint Louis), he served as a missionary in Brazil (Porto Alegre, R.S., and Muncipio, P.A.) and as a professor at Concordia Senior College (Fort Wayne, Indiana). He also carried out a project to transcribe the handwritten correspondence of C. F. W. Walther for Concordia Historical Institute.