325 The First Council of Nicea closed.

1270 King Louis IX of France died on a crusade in Tunis (b. 25 April 1215).

1518 Philipp Melanchthon (14971560) joined the Wittenberg faculty as chair of Greek.

1560 Led by John Knox (ca. 15141572), the reformed Church of Scotland was established on Protestant lines.

1751 William C. Berkenmeyer, Lutheran pastor and leader, died (b. 14[?] April 1687, Bodenteich, Lüneburg).

1801 Lewis Eichelberger, General Synod professor, was born in Frederick County, Maryland (d. 16 September 1859).

1817 German clergyman Josef Mohr (17921848), author of “Silent Night,” began his assistant pastorate at Saint Nicholas Church in Oberndorf, Austria.

1818 Frederick Augustus Muhlenberg Jr., professor at various Lutheran colleges, was born in Lancaster, Pennsylvania (d. 21 March 1901).

1860 Jacob M. Buehler (18371901) arrived in San Francisco to begin Lutheran mission work.

1885 William John Copeland, hymn translator, died at Farnham, Essex, England (b. 1 September 1804, Chigwell, Essex, England).

1896 Herman John Rippe was born in New York City (d 21 August 1969). He was a graduate of Concordia Seminary (Saint Louis) in 1918 and became an assistant professor at the Concordia Institute (Bronxville, New York). After he received an A.M. degree from Columbia University, he became a full professor at Bronxville in 1920. From 1940 until his retirement in 1966 he was pastor of Trinity Lutheran Church, Long Island City, New York, and served as president of the Atlantic District from 1942 to 1960.

1940 Emmanuel A. Mayer, pastor at Saint Lorenz (Frankenmuth, Michigan) and Michigan District (LCMS) president, died (b. 12 August 1859, Mannheim, Germany). He came to the U.S. through the influence of Friedrich Brunn of Steeden, Germany, and studied for the ministry at Concordia College (Fort Wayne, Indiana) and Concordia Seminary (Saint Louis), where he graduated in 1880. He served as pastor at Christ Lutheran Church (Saint Louis) and in Norfolk, Nebraska, and New Wells, Missouri, before receiving the call to Frankenmuth. He was president of the Michigan District from 1914 to 1924.

1946 The Lutheran High School in Saint Louis, Missouri, was dedicated.

1966 Gertrude Simon, missionary to China and Hong Kong, died (b. 13 July 1900, Zachow, Wisconsin). She graduated from the Lutheran Hospital School of Nursing in Saint Louis in 1926 and later attended the deaconess school in Fort Wayne, Indiana. She was consecrated a deaconess in 1940. She was commissioned as a missionary to China on 12 October 1926 and served in Hankow, Shasi, Enshih, Wanhshin and Chang King. In 1950 she had to leave mainland China because of the communist takeover and was one of the workers who began evangelistic activity in Hong Kong among refugees in Rennies Mill Camp, where she set up a Bible institute program. She served in the LCMS Hong Kong mission until 1963, when she became affiliated with the Independent
Christian Chinese Lutheran Mission.

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