449 The Second Council of Ephesus convened as the fourth ecumenical council of the church. It was convoked at Ephesus under the authority of Emperor Theodosius II and with the agreement of Pope Leo I of Rome. Its controversial acts were never approved by the pope, thus denying the council ecumenical status in the west; subsequently, they were formally repudiated at the Council of Chalcedon. The Second Council of Ephesus came to be called the Robber Council of Ephesus, Robber Synod or Latrocinium by its opponents.
1567 Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, 3rd Duke of Alba (1507–1582), after a four-month march over the Alps, arrived in the Netherlands to put down a Protestant revolt.
1635 Roger Williams (1603–1684) was sentenced to banishment by Massachusetts for his differing religious views. In exile he founded Rhode Island on principles of freedom of conscience.
1796 Peter Williams, Welsh hymnist, died (b. 15 January 1723, Llansadurnin, Carmarthenshire, Wales).
1835 Adam Martin, first president of Northwestern College (Watertown, Wisconsin), was born in Budershausen, Bavaria (or on August 9; d. 18 May 1921).
1837 Jacob Matthias Buehler, pioneer pastor of the Missouri Synod on the Pacific Coast, was born in Baltimore, Maryland (d. 28 August 1901).
1843 Peter Abbelen, priest and spiritual director, was born in Germany (d. 1917). He was ordained in Milwaukee in 1868 but joined the La Crosse Diocese. After eight years of pastorate he became spiritual director to the School Sisters of Notre Dame in Milwaukee, where they had been established since 1850. This congregation had come to the USA from Germany in 1847 to minister to German-speaking immigrants. Abbelen became embroiled in a dispute over jurisdiction in nationalistic parishes and the use of English in schools. The subsequent division of the Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith is considered unfavorable to him. He was made a domestic prelate in 1907.
1845 Thomas Koschat, Austrian composer of sacred music, was born near Klagenfurt, Austria (d. 19 May 1914, Vienna, Austria).
1850 Günther Kurze, pastor at Bornshaim, Saxony and a voluminous and well-informed author on missions, was born.
1852 The roots of the Baptist General Conference were established when Swedish-born immigrant minister Gustaf Palmquist baptized his first three converts in the Mississippi River at Rock Island, Illinois.
1877 The first meeting of the Synodical Conference Mission Board for African American missions was held.
1877 Walter Bauer, Lutheran theologian and lexicographer, was born in Koenigsberg, Germany (d. 17 November 1960).
1893 Otto Albert Ferdinand Geiseman, pastor, author, editor, lecturer and occasional summer Lutheran Hour speaker, was born in Sioux City, Iowa (d. 7 November 1962).
1922 William H. Jude (b. September 1851), English sacred organist, died.