1417 Avignon Pope Benedict XIII (1328–1423) was deposed as pope by the Council of Constance.
1516 Martin Luther preached for the first time about indulgences.
1656 Salomo Glassius, German Lutheran theologian and encyclopedist, died (b. 20 May 1593, Sondershausen, principality of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen).
1658 Johann Mentzer, hymnist, was born at Jahman, near Rothenburg, Silesia (d. 24 February 1743). [German Wikipedia article]
1662 Valentin Thilo, hymnist, died at Königsberg (b. 19 April 1607, Königsberg, Prussia).
1681 During a bitter battle between Scottish Episcopalians and Presbyterians, five Presbyterian preachers were martyred in Edinburgh. The Church of Scotland became Presbyterian permanently in 1690.
1741 François Hippolyte Barthélémon, musician (violinist) and composer, was born in Bordeaux, France (d. 23 July 1808, London, England).
1861 Cyrus S. Nusbaum, American Methodist clergyman and hymnist, was born in Middlebury, Indiana (d. 27 December 1937, Wichita, Kansas).
1901 B. F. (Brooke Foss) Westcott (b. 12 January 1825), English New Testament textual scholar, died.
1903 Karolina (“Lina”) Wilhelmina Sandell-Berg (b. 3 October 1832), Swedish hymn writer, died.
1933 Arthur Stephen Paynter (b. 1862), missions pioneer, died. In 1897 he and his wife, Agnes, founded the India Christian Mission in the Kumoan District of north India.
1967 Emil F. Mueller, Missouri Synod missionary to Brazil from 1905 to 1922, died at Decatur, Illinois (b. 19 November 1880, Amelith, Michigan). He graduated from Concordia Seminary (Saint Louis) in 1905. After serving in Brazil, he was a parish pastor in Strasburg and Decatur, Illinois.