363 Julian the Apostate died (b. 331, Constantinople). He was Roman emperor from 361 to 363.

684 Pope Benedict II was consecrated as pope (d. 6 May 685). A humble, charitable man, he was successful in freeing the papal elections from the requirement of imperial confirmation.

1097 The armies of the First Crusade occupied the ancient Byzantine city of Nicaea (the modern village of Iznik, in northwest Turkey).

1520 The Papacy at Rome, a pamphlet by Luther, was published on this date. It presented his teaching on the Christian Church, namely, that “the Church in the real sense of the word is the whole number of all believers.”

1546 Emperor Charles V (15001558) joined forces with Pope Paul III against Luther’s followers.

1702 Philip Doddridge, English Nonconformist clergyman, was born in London (d. 26 October 1751).

1832 Johann Paul Beyer was born in Bavaria (d. 19 January 1905, Brooklyn, New York). He came to America in 1849 and moved to Fort Wayne, Indiana, to attend the seminary there. Later he moved to Saint Louis to attend Concordia Seminary until 1853. He was ordained on 7 October 1855, and his first parish was in Memphis, Tennessee. He was also a pastor in Altenburg, Missouri; Chicago, Illinois; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; and Brooklyn, New York. He was named secretary of the Synodical Conference in 1872 and became president of Eastern District of the Missouri Synod in 1875, serving until 1888. He was elected vice-president of the Missouri Synod in 1893, an office he held for six years. He was founder and editor of Lutherisches Kinderblatt (later Lutherisches Kinder- und Jugendblatt) and wrote Der Brief St. Pauli an die Epheser in Predigten.

1832 Frederick Henry Quitman, president of the New York Ministerium, died (b. 7 August 1760, Iserlohn, Duchy of Cleves, Westphalia, near the lower Rhine).

1850 Jeremiah Franklin Ohl, social work missionary, was born in Cherryvale, Northampton County, Pennsylvania (d. 21 January 1941).

1892 Pearl S. Buck, American Presbyterian missionary to China and author of the best-seller The Good Earth (1931), was born (d. 6 March 1973).

1893 Charles Augustus Hay, president of the General Synod, died (b. 11 February 1821).

1898 The Finnish National Synod was organized.

1901 Heinrich Bornkamm, Lutheran historical scholar, was born in Saxony, Germany (d. 1977).

1924 Concordia Lutheran Seminary in Nagercoil, India, opened.

1934 Two religious bodies with Swiss and German rootsthe Evangelical Synod of North America and the Reformed Church in the U.S.merged in Cleveland, Ohio, to form the Evangelical and Reformed Church. The Reformed Church in the U.S. was organized in 1725 by John Philip Boehm in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania. The Evangelical Synod of North America was organized in 1840 in Saint Louis County (Mehlville), Missouri.

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