420 Abdas, also called Audas, a Persian bishop, was martyred at Ledan, Persia, and is commemorated on this date.

577 Brendan the Navigator, founder of a Celtic monastery in Clonfert, Ireland, died (b. ca. 484).

1204 During the Fourth Crusade Count Baldwin IX (11721205) of Flanders was crowned the first Latin Emperor in Constantinople.

1569 Dirk Willems, an Anabaptist, was burned at the stake.

1611 Pope Innocent XI was born (d. 12 August 1689).

1721 Wilhelm Erasmus Arends, pastor and member of a Pietistic school of poets, died in Halberstadt (b. 5 February 1677). [German Wikipedia article]

1745 Justus Henry Christian Helmuth, pioneer American Lutheran author, was born in Helmstedt (d. 5 February 1825).

1811 Antonio Ravalli, Roman Catholic missionary to the Indians in Montana, was born in Ferrara, Italy (d. 2 October 1884).

1832 Missionary Richard Armstrong (18051860) arrived in Hawaii.

1835 A few men met in David Nasmith’s little home to found the London City Mission. Nasmith (17991839) had already founded the world’s first city mission in Glasgow nine years earlier.

1839 Peter Johannes Georg Emil Wacker, pastor and rector of a deaconess institution, was born in Kotzenbuell, near Toenning (d. 2 April 1913).

1847 Rudolph Adam Bischoff, professor at Concordia College (Fort Wayne, Indiana), was born in Saint Louis (d. 11 September 1916).

1850 Arthur Henry Mann, English church organist and composer, was born in Norwich, England (d. 19 November 1929, Cambridge, England).

1869 Karl Heinrich Graf (b. 1815), German Protestant Old Testament scholar, died.

1905 Werner Georg Kümmel, German United Evangelical New Testament scholar, was born at Heidelberg (d. 9 July 1995). He taught at the universities of Marburg, Zurich and Mainz and it the author of Introduction to the New Testament (19th edition, 1978).

1920 Pope Benedict XV (18541922) canonized Joan of Arc (ca. 14121431) as a saint.

1929 John Nicholas Lenker, statistician and historian who translated some of Luther’s Works into English, died (b. 28 November 1858, Sunbury, Pennsylvania).

1931 George Foot Moore (b. 15 October 1851), American Old Testament scholar, died.

1955 Cyril Argentine Alington, scholar, writer and hymnist, died at Saint Weonards, Herefordshire, England (b. 22 October 1872).

1959 The constituting convention of the Wabag Lutheran Church (now known as the Gutnius Lutheran Church) in Papua New Guinea began.

1967 Tennessee repealed its “monkey law” (the Butler Act) against the teaching of evolution that had led to the Scopes Trial.

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