1204 The treacherous Genoese forces of the Fourth Crusade (1202-1204) captured the allied city of Constantinople and ravaged it for three days.

1579 The printing of the Formula of Concord was completed.

1633 The formal inquest of Galileo Galilei (15641642) by the Inquisition began.

1643 Nicolaus Hunnius, Lutheran theologian, died at Luebeck (b. 11 July 1585, Marburg). He was the son of Aegidius Hunnius.

1716 Felice de Giardini, the Italian composer and chorister, was born in Turin, Piedmont, Italy (d. 8 June 1796).

1782 Christian Friedrich Spittler, mission director, was born in Wimsheim, Wuerttemberg (d. 8 December 1867). [German Wikipedia entry]

1799 Church Mission Society for Africa and the East (also called the Anglican Church Mission Society) was founded at London “for sending missionaries to the continent of Africa and other parts of the heathen world.”

1834 Arthur Henry Messiter, composer, was born (d. 2 July 1916, New York, New York).

1835 Frederick William Foster, hymn translator, died in Ockbrook, near Danby, England (b. 1 August 1760, Bradford, West Yorkshire, England).

1850 Adoniram Judson, missionary to India and Burma, died (b. 9 August 1788).

1860 Alfred Ramsey, hymnist, was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (d. 1926).

1867 Samuel M. Zwemer, American Dutch Reformed missionary, was born in Vriesland, Michigan (d. 2 April 1952).

1901 Louis A. Sabatier (b. 22 October 1839), French Protestant theologian, died.

1902 Thomas De Witt Talmage (b. 1832), American Presbyterian clergyman, died.

1904 J. A. Huegli, one of the founders of the Lutheran school for the deaf in Detroit and president of the Northern District of the Missouri Synod, died in Detroit, Michigan (b. 23 January 1831).

1912 Clara Barton (b. 25 December 1821), founder of the American Red Cross, died.

1914 An 11-day constitutional convention that saw the founding of the Assemblies of God ended at Hot Springs, Arkansas.

1953 John Henry Charles Fritz, educator and dean of Concordia Seminary (Saint Louis), died (b. 30 July 1874).

1956 Charles H. Marsh (b. 8 April 1886), American Congregational pastor and composer, died.

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