1073 Gregory VII (Hildebrand, ca. 10201085; pope, 10731085) was consecrated. His reign was marked by continual skirmishing with Emperor Henry IV (10501108).

1315 According to tradition, Raymond Lully (Ramon Llull, b. 1232), Spanish mystic, scholar and missionary to Muslims, was stoned to death in North Africa.

1503 Elector John Frederick of Saxony was born at Torgau, Prussia (d. 3 March 1554).

1522 Johann Reuchlin, German humanist and professor of Greek and Hebrew, died (b. 29 January 1455, Pforzheim).

1531 Margarethe Luther, mother of the Reformer, died (b. 1460).

1548 The Augsburg Interim was issued.

1632 Gustavus Adolphus signed the charter of the University of Dorpat (Tartu) in Latvia.

1666 Adam Krieger, organist and composer, died in Dresden (b. 1634).

1699 Johann Heinrich Schröder, hymnist, died at Meseberg (near Neuhaldensleben; b. 4 October 1667, Hallerspringe [later called Springe], Hannover).

1810 Ottomar Fuerbringer was born in Gera, Thuringia (d. 12 July 1892).

1817 The Prussian government replaced the name “Protestant” with “Evangelical,” giving rise to a common attribution for the church.

1818 Edward J. Hopkins, composer, was born at Westminster, London, England (d. 4 February 1901, London).

1839 Johan Olof Wallin, Archbishop of Uppsala and hymn writer, died in Uppsala (b. 1779).

1852 The New York YMCA was founded.

1856 John Daniel Kurtz, chairman of the organizational meeting of the General Synod, died (b. 30 March 1764 [1763?], Germantown, Pennsylvania).

1864 John Hands, missionary to India, died (b. 5 December 1780, Roade, Northamptonshire, England).

1870 The Old Testament Company began its work in England of translating the Old Testament. The New Testament Company began work on the New Testament on 22 June 1870. The complete translation, finished in 1884, became the Revised Version, an updated KJV of the Bible.

1872 Henry Strachan, founder of the Latin America Mission (founded in 1921 in Stony Brook, New York), was born (d. 1945).

1880 The Jesuit Order was expelled from France by revolutionaries.

1881 Herman Edward Ernest Meyer, Wisconsin Synod professor, was born in Caledonia, Racine County, Wisconsin (d. 4 April

1881 Presbyterian preacher and African American abolitionist Henry Highland Garnet (18151882) was appointed ambassador to Liberia.

1948 The World Alliance for Promoting International Friendship through the Churches was dissolved.

1957 The Czech Central Committee of the Communist Party was told in its 30 June session that religious superstition (i.e., Christianity) was still influencing party members.

1961 Immanuel Lutheran College (Greensboro, North Carolina) closed.

1963 Italian Cardinal Giovanni Battista Montini (18971978) was crowned Pope Paul VI at Vatican City.

1971 Rosa Jinsey Young, pioneer African American Lutheran educator, died (b. 14 May 1890, Rosebud, Alabama).

1973 The Far East Broadcasting Company began broadcasting from HLAZ, its first radio station, in Korea.

1985 The Rev. Benjamin Christian Zimmermann, along with 38 other hostages of TWA Flight 847, was released after 17 days of captivity. He was the flight engineer on the flight to Beirut, and had been flying for 25 years professionally before being taken captive.

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