PERSONS AND EVENTS IN THE LIFE OF JAN HUS
When Benedict XIII and Gregory XII were deposed as heretics, Alexander V was elected as the pope in 1409. Alexander V issued a papal bull in 1409 that prohibited the teachings of John Wycliffe, leading to Hus’ excommunication. Upon Alexander’s death, Pope John XXIII replaced Alexander, who is now recognized as Antipope Alexander V.
Babylonian Captivity of the Church
This name is metaphorical and refers to the time period when the popes were seated in Avignon, France. When a new pope returned to Rome in 1378, the French clergy elected a different pope to stay in Avignon, which led to the Papal Schism.
Babylonian Captivity of the Church-Christian Cyclopedia
During the Papal Schism Pope Benedict XIII,elected 1394 and seated in Avignon, was the rival to Pope Gregory XII. Alexander V replaced both of them following the Council of Pisa, creating a group of three rival popes. At the Council of Constance Benedict XIII would not resign and was excommunicated from the church when Pope Martin V was elected. Now recognized as Antipope Benedict XIII.
Antipope Benedict XIII-Christian Cyclopedia
Council of Constance
Held under Pope John XXIII and King Sigismund, the council ultimately ended the Papal Schism. John XXIII and Benedict XIII were deposed, Gregory XII abdicated by force, and Martin V was elected as the new pope. Jan Hus and Jerome of Prague were burned at the stake.
Council of Constance-Christian Cyclopedia
Pope Gregory XII, seated in Rome, was one of the three popes laying claim to the title during the Papal Schism. Archbishop Zbynek created conflict between himself and Jan Hus by siding with Gregory XII. Even though Gregory XII was forced to resign during the Council of Constance, the newly-elected Pope Martin V could not officially become the pope until Gregory’s death. Pope Gregory XII is considered the true claimant to the papal throne at the end of the schism.
Pope Gregory XII-Christian Cyclopedia
Taking place from 1419 to about 1434, the Hussite Wars were conflicts in Bohemia and Moravia between the followers of Jan Hus and political leaders who supported the Roman Catholic Church. When moderate Hussites gained the upper hand, they reached a compromise with their opposition, which included King Sigismund.
Bohemian followers of Jan Hus whose anger following his death caused them to object to Sigismund’s kingship and to fight for their beliefs in the Hussite Wars. Hussite traditions are found in the modern-day Moravian Church.
Jerome of Prague
Jerome of Prague was a contemporary of Jan Hus who studied at universities throughout Europe. Jerome is responsible for bringing the writings of John Wycliffe to Bohemia. Wycliffe’s, and subsequently, Hus’ teachings greatly influenced and shaped Jerome’s life. He traveled to Constance in an attempt to assist Hus in April 1415, but was arrested, imprisoned and then burned at the stake in the same place as Hus one year later.
Jerome of Prague-Christian Cyclopedia
Pope John XXIII replaced Alexander V when the latter died in 1410. John XXIII played a role in Jan Hus’ excommunication. He was one of the three men vying for the papal crown at the beginning of the Council of Constance. He was deposed of his title as pope in Constance and is now considered Antipope John XXIII.
Antipope John XXIII-Christian Cyclopedia
Luther was a sixteenth-century reformer who instigated the Protestant Reformation in Germany. He was influenced by Jan Hus and wrote a preface to a collection of Hus’ writings. Luther is considered the “swan” to Hus’ “goose” in Hus’s final words: “To-day [sic]you will roast a lean goose, but [a]hundred years from now you will hear a swan sing, whom you will leave unroasted and no trap or net will catch him for you.”
Martin Luther-Christian Cyclopedia
Prior to being pope, Martin V was known as Cardinal Oddo Colonna, and was the man who issued Jan Hus’ greater excommunication. In order to end the Papal Schism, he was declared pope in 1417 at the Council of Constance. He played an important part in the Hussite Wars, issuing a papal bull which declared a crusade against the Hussites.
Pope Martin V-Christian Cyclopedia
Also referred to as the Western Schism or the Great Schism, the Papal Schism followed the Babylonian Captivity of the Church and divided the clergy and the nobility in their support of the three men claiming to be pope: Gregory XII, Benedict XIII, and Alexander V (replaced by John XXIII). The decisions made at the Council of Constance, culminating in the election of Martin V to the papal throne, ended the schism.
Papal Schism-Christian Cyclopedia (see Schism # 8)
Savonarola was a late-fifteenth-century Italian reformer between Jan Hus and Martin Luther. He focused especially on moral reform of the church. He taught that men were saved by grace, not good works. He was hanged eighty-three years after Hus was burned at the stake.
Girolamo Savonarola-Christian Cyclopedia
Sigismund, King of Hungary and Bohemia
Sigismund (King of Hungary at the time of the Council of Constance) was a driving force in calling the council and hoped that it would end the Papal Schism. This council eventually chose to execute Jan Hus, causing many Hussites to despise Sigismund for his supposed role in Hus’ death. This contributed to the Hussite Wars once Sigismund became the King of Bohemia upon his brother’s (King Wenceslaus’) death. Sigismund became the Holy Roman Emperor at the end of the Hussite Wars.
King Sigismund-Christian Cyclopedia
Wenceslaus IV, King of Bohemia
Wenceslaus IV, King of Bohemia during the majority of Hus’ lifetime, held a significant role in the Papal Schism. Supporting the work of the Council of Pisa, Wenceslaus first championed Pope Gregory XII, but later declared neutrality between the two popes. When the council deposed the two popes and then elected Alexander V to the position, Wenceslaus followed suit with his support. Jan Hus obeyed his king, first remaining neutral and then supporting Alexander, which contributed to friction between himself and Archbishop Zbynek.
John Wycliffe was a fourteenth-century scholar and theologian in Oxford, England, whose teachings attempted reform within the church. His writings greatly influenced Jan Hus. Wycliffe was declared a heretic long after his death during the Council of Constance. He was excommunicated from the church in 1415, and then his bones were burned in 1427.
John Wycliffe-Christian Cyclopedia
Zbynek, Archbishop of Prague
Archbishop Zbynek and Jan Hus were on good terms for five years; Zbynek appointed Hus to be a synodal preacher, one who reported to the Archbishop of the faults of church government. When Archbishop Zbynek chose to recognize Pope Gregory XII as the true pope rather than remaining neutral, he opposed both Hus and King Wenceslaus. Due to his disagreement with Hus, Zbynek carried out the papal bull issued by Pope Alexander V to prohibit the teachings of Wycliffe and then excommunicated Hus and his followers in 1410.